glossary

Find a definition

A B C D E F G H I K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z
  • DEFINITION

    Systematic handling, manipulation, and computation of data, always involving the use of computers. Do not confuse with "information processing".

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Where there are several countries in the study, a common set of cleaning rules should be used. It is very difficult to compare results if each nation has used a different set of cleaning rules. There are always extra errors in data entry, no matter how good the data entry programme. By undertaking consistency checks it is possible to identify questions in the questionnaires where an error occurred on the part of the respondent. These problems are reported back to national centres; the schools are then contacted for elucidation and the correct data sent back to the international data processing centre (Postlethwaite, 2004: 101).

  • DEFINITION

    Decentralization is the transfer of responsibilities from the central level to other actors.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Training needs are diversifying because of governance reforms. During such moments of change, training can facilitate the change process and lead it in the desired direction. Because of trends towards decentralization, staff in regional and district offices need access to well developed and integrated training programmes, ideally offered by national centres (De Grauwe, 2009: 14).

  • DEFINITION

    [Form of decentralisation]. Transfer to lower administrative levels.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    It is important to emphasize that governance in one country seldom follows a totally pure model, but is rather a mixture of some of the above-mentioned models. For instance, even in fairly centralized systems some responsibilities will be given to lower level administrative units. In such a country, the governance framework will therefore be a mix of centralization with some trend of deconcentration. Overall, this will depend on the level and kind of actors considered to be the best placed in each country to make specific decisions in the field of education, and overall in the context of each country (ED/PED and IIEP, 2012: 53). , Moving the responsibilities for providing education from the central government down to regional or local governments is technically referred to as devolution. Moving responsibilities to the school itself is commonly referred to as school autonomy, or school based management. Giving lower levels of government education bureaucracy (lower administrative offices) enhanced decision-making responsibilities, while the centre retains overall control, is called deconcentration (UNESCO, 2012: 2).

  • DEFINITION

    [Form of decentralisation]. Transfer to services/agencies., The authorization given by one person to another to reach decisions and take actions within a defined sphere of responsibility, subject to accountability.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    First, quality assurance is not an aim in itself. It is an instrument through which the state, directly or through delegation, may both enact its role to protect students and families from low-quality or fraudulent providers and serve the purpose of quality improvement in academic departments and institutions (Martin and Stella, 2007: 103).

  • DEFINITION

    Demand for formal education expressed by potential learners.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    But as obviously important as manpower needs were finally conceded to be, they paled before another force that soon began to dominate the education scene and give sleepless nights to authorities throughout Europe and North America. This other force was the explosive increase in popular demand for education, which led to the Rampant Expansion Phase (Coombs, 1970: 23).

  • DEFINITION

    Shift in a population from a traditional demographic regime marked by high fertility and mortality to a modern demographic regime in which fertility and mortality are low.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    It examines, in particular, the problems involved in taking a multigrade approach to implementing EFA in developing countries, especially in those where the demographic transition is not complete and where the number of children to be provided with schooling is still on the increase (Brunswic and Valérien, 2004: 20).

  • DEFINITION

    Schools whose philosophy is based on a particular religion.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Multigrade classes are to be found regardless of the status of the school: public, denominational, private or 'community' school (Brunswic et Valérien, 2003: 46).

  • DEFINITION

    Ratio of the economically dependent part of the population (children and persons aged 65 or over) to the working-age population (aged 15-64). The result is expressed as the number of persons under 15 and aged 65 or over per 100 persons aged 15-64.

 Age boundaries may vary. Youth dependency ratios and old-age dependency ratios can be calculated separately.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    At macro level, the countries with young population structure would get extreme benefit from highly qualified labor force in productive age groups (15–64 years old). The total dependency ratio represents the number of the population under age 15 (0–14) and age 65 and older per 100 people aged 15–64. Vietnam’s population structure is currently characterized by a low total dependency ratio. This ratio has been in a decreasing trend since 1989 (UNFPA 2009). It was 78.2% in 1989 census, went down to 63.6% in 1999 and now at 46.3% (General Statistics Office 1991). This situation is often referred to as the ‘‘population bonus’’ or the ‘‘golden population structure’’ (General Statistics Office 2011) (Vu, Le and Muhajarine, 2013: 383).

  • DEFINITION

    The design effect (deff) is a survey statistic computed as the quotient of the variability in the parameter estimate of interest resulting from the sampling design and the variability in the estimate that would be obtained from a simple random sample of the same size.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    A design effect found in one survey should not be automatically adopted for use in the design of another survey [...]. Rather than simply importing an overall design effect from a previous survey, careful consideration should be given to the various components involved (Kalton, Brick and Lê, 2005: 95).

  • DEFINITION

    Intended impact contributing to physical, financial, institutional, social, environmental, or other benefits to a society, community, or group of people via one or more development interventions.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    This is now questioned and, in addition, the ongoing process of privatization (and in particular the proliferation of private national and international providers) has enhanced the need for national governments to check on minimum levels of quality, even if only to protect national consumers and make sure that the higher education provision relates to national development objectives in one way or another (Martin and Stella, 2007: 42).

  • DEFINITION

    [Form of decentralisation] Transfer to local elected authorities.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    The devolution of authority for decision-making to local education offices has been an efficient but temporary solution, but would not be applicable as a long-term strategy, because (1) these authorities have to modify the curriculum in line with local insurgents’ opinions, which affects the quality of education; (2) the insurgents do not allow girls to participate beyond primary schools, so the Ministry would be unable to train female students in secondary schools in order to provide more local female teachers; and (3) the results of these negotiations are not always sustainable and will change as insurgent policy changes toward government authorities in the insecure provinces (Sigsgaard, 2011: 104). , There have been increasing calls for greater decentralization of the education system (the control of schools and appointment of teachers being devolved to parent and community groups, or the devolution of curriculum and assessment). This is particularly true in highly centralizeschool systems that, while they may provide equal access and educational provisions, are seen to ignore the needs of the students due to their focus on homogeneity in the education system (Inglis, 2008: 65).

  • DEFINITION

    Teaching by traditional methods focusing on the blackboard and presentation by the teacher as opposed to more informal or interactive methods (Oxford English Dictionary)., The didactic approach mainly entails lecturing and is typically teacher-centred and content-oriented, i.e. teaching as transmission where the learners are considered to be the passive recipients of information transmitted (IBE, 2013).

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    In discussing teacher-student communication (Chapter VI), it was suggested that the use of questions fundamentally changes the nature of the communication that occurs in the classroom. Through proper use of questions, didactic teaching becomes dialogue. Pedantic teaching becomes thoughtful discourse (Anderson, 2004: 117).

  • DEFINITION

    Differentiated teaching is an attempt to address the needs of individuals in pursuit of both common and individual goals. In the context of classroom teaching, adaptation takes two paths (a) adapting instruction to student differences, and (b) adapting students to the instruction (Corno and Snow, 1986: 619).

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    The ‘flexible integration’ model is typified by high attainment levels, big differences in student scores and scores substantially influenced by social background. This system is quite flexible: it involves groups within classes in primary education, relatively flexible class-based or other forms of ability grouping (often by subject) in secondary education, and frequent use of differentiated teaching. According to Mons, this is why it manages to raise the attainment of the least able students to quite a high level, while still offering excellent provision to the strongest (Dupriez, 2010: 77).

  • DEFINITION

    Education imparted at a distance through the use of information/communication technology: radio, TV, the telephone, correspondence, e-mail, videoconferencing, audioconferencing, cd-roms, or online.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    There are about 6,100 students following courses locally in private institutions or through distance education. These students pay their own fees and are not subsidized by government. Students studying overseas also spend a substantial amount on their studies. Total expenditure on higher education for Mauritian students studying abroad is estimated to be more than Rs. 1 billion per annum, the equivalent of almost twice the total recurrent budget of the publicly-funded higher education institutions (Mohadeb, 2006: 40). , Technological advances have allowed the expansion of programme mobility, and this concerns not only the small states of the Commonwealth. Due to its low cost and the fact that it reduces migration and brain drain, many countries worldwide are increasingly implementing this mode of educational expansion. Any institution wishing to introduce distance education can now use a range of open-source learning management systems or software platforms that support e-learning. Indeed, some of the large states in the Commonwealth have some of the largest distance-learning programmes and virtual universities in the world (Varghese, 2011: 18).

  • DEFINITION

    Designed primarily to lead to an advanced research qualification. Programmes at this ISCED level are devoted to advanced study and original research and are typically offered only by research-oriented tertiary educational institutions such as universities. Doctoral programmes exist in both academic and professional fields [...]. Programmes classified at ISCED level 8 may be referred to in many ways, for example: PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar terms.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    For example, an agency may not insist that for every 10 students there should be a teacher. It might not insist that the postgraduate programmes be handled only by the doctoral degree holders; however, it might say in general language that it should have adequate and competent faculty to run the programme under review (Martin and Stella, 2007: 77).

  • DEFINITION

    In a double-shift system, schools cater for two entirely separate groups of pupils during a school day. The first group of pupils usually attends school from early morning until mid-day, and the second group usually attends from mid-day to late afternoon. Each group uses the same buildings, equipment and other facilities. In some systems the two groups are taught by the same teachers, but in other systems they are taught by different teachers (Bray, 2008: 17).

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    In the view of many people, these problems outweigh the benefits. Public opinion often opposes introduction of double shifts on the grounds that the system can save money but creates educational and social problems. The extent to which this view is valid may depend on the management of double-shift systems, i.e. it concerns not only the overall concept but also the ways in which the policies are implemented (Bray, 2008: 20).

  • DEFINITION

    The drop-out rate is a flow rate which reveals the ratio of pupils who from one year to the next either no longer attend school, have moved to another school system or have died. It is calculated by dividing the number of pupils dropping out from grade (g)during year (t) by the total number of pupils in grade (g)in year (t).

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    The introduction of the Grade 10 assessment in Texas in the USA has been associated with an increase in the Grade 9 retention rate, in the school drop-out rate, and in the time devoted to subjects tested at the expense of other subjects (Kellaghan and Greaney, 2001: 81).

  • DEFINITION

    Dropouts are pupils which either no longer attend school, have moved to another school system or have died. The number of dropouts is determined as a ‘residue’. We can deduce it by adding together the repeaters in grade (g) which are still in grade (g) in year (t+1) and the students promoted from grade (g) to grade (g+1) in year (t+1) and subtracting this total from the total enrolment of grade (g) in year (t).

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    First of all, many studies have shown that an approach based on interaction not only leads to deeper, more efficient learning but also improves retention and averts dropout (Depover and Orivel, 2013: 73).

  • DEFINITION

    Premature school leaving before completing a cycle or course already begun.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Children of illiterate mothers have a greater chance of not going to school or of dropping out than children of literate mothers (Oxenham, 2008: 9).

  • DEFINITION

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    At a minimum, the data of the two consecutive years are absolutely necessary to be able to construct dynamic indicators, in particular those concerning the student and teacher flows in the system. Without these indicators, it will not be possible to design valid simulations on educational development (Chang and Radi, 2001: 54).