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A B C D E F G H I K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z
  • DEFINITION

    Implies the enhancement of capabilities of people and institutions to improve their competence and problem solving capacities in a sustainable manner.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Where a programme is financed by external agencies, the fifth option may also involve the issue of ownership and control: should the local agency – whether governmental or non-governmental – be responsible for the samples, or should the fi nancier accept them? Currently, the general policy is to encourage local ownership and control in the interests of promoting capacity-building, although external specialists are often imported to help with the design and analysis (Oxenham, 2008: 112).

  • DEFINITION

    Major costs for periodic investments such as Expenditure for assets that yield benefits for a period of more than one year. It includes expenditure for construction, renovation and major repairs of buildings and the purchase of heavy equipment or vehicles.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Governments often treat large-scale investment in physical facilities and equipment as a capital investment, i.e. a one-off cost, although institutions may need to pay annual interest payments and allow for depreciation. An institution with no, little, or very out-of-date existing technology infrastructure may indeed initially require a heavy one- time investment, but in general, technology infrastructure requires regular ongoing funding, for two reasons. First, the technology changes very rapidly due to technical advances. For instance, the average life of a desktop computer is three years or so, as the power and functionality of computers constantly develops. Secondly, the cost of human support for the infrastructure usually far exceeds the cost of equipment replacement and upgrading. Thus, investment in technological infrastructure within and between institutions should be seen as a recurrent or operational cost. When physical infrastructure is treated as a capital expenditure, it is less likely to compete for funds that impact directly on teaching. However, as an operational cost, the need to fund technology support staff directly competes with funds for teaching and research. Consequently, the human technology support side is often underfunded in many educational institutions (Bates, 2001: 38).

  • DEFINITION

    A largely verbal process in which a counsellor and counsellee(s) are in a dynamic and collaborative relationship, focused on identifying and acting on the counselee’s goals, in which the counsellor employs a repertoire of diverse techniques and processes, to help bring about self-understanding, understanding of behavioural options available, and informed decisionmaking in the counsellee, who has the responsibility for his or her own actions (UNESCO, 2002: 5).

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Similarly, GTZ has completed the screening of the indicators used by a number of German TVSD programmes, in the context of development cooperation (Castañer et al., 2007). One such indicator relates to the views of employers on preparedness of trainees and appropriateness of training contents (also measured by the time needed to get new employees ‘operational’); another relates to youths’ (or parents’) views on information received about the labour market and career counselling, after a certain period of time (King and Palmer, 2010: 91)

  • DEFINITION

    Career counsellors should have specialized training in career counselling and career development. They may also have additional training in personal counselling as well as in group counselling. They may facilitate career development groups for students or counsel students individually. Counsellors can assist students in various areas. Some examples include increasing self-awareness, decision-making, goal-setting and establishing a plan of action (UNESCO, 2002: 13).

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Accordingly, some countries have made separate appointments of career counsellors or careers teachers. An alternative model is for such career counsellors to be based in an agency outside the school, closer to the labour market, and independent of the interests of the educational institution (which in some cases may tend to bias the guidance, for example by favouring the school’s own learning provision over alternative provision). The German model, in which the PES plays such a role, has been influential in some other countries (Watts, 2013: 258).

  • DEFINITION

    An extensive, detailed and intensive study of one individual, one group or one event.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    More specific multi-level leadership programmes may also be developed, grounded on rich case-study research of innovative local and international educational practices using ICT, involving key stakeholders, from the ministry through to principals and teachers, focusing on the issues, considerations and contextual factors for strategic planning in ICT in education (Pelgrum and Law, 2003: 115).

  • DEFINITION

    The main objective of cash budget is to reduce the “cash” money mass in circulation (and to avoid printing new notes) when all government obligations and disbursements are strictly “tied” to the revenues. No activity, even of high priority, is financed by the Treasury, unless there are receipts in the income side of the government budget. This type of budgeting is useful for stabilizing the fiscal situation in the country but at the same time it is detrimental for achieving the planned activities and has obvious risks and side‐effects, such as teacher strikes and absenteeism.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Although the specifics of [cash budgeting] differ from country to country, they have two general characteristics: (a) monitoring of cash disbursements is the main expenditure control mechanism rather than monitoring of commitments entered into by line ministries; (b) provisions exist for planned cash disbursements to be reviewed at regular intervals to allow for swift fiscal policy adjustments in response to unexpected shortfalls in tax revenue or donor finance. When strictly implemented, cash budgeting is a very effective method of eliminating a fiscal deficit and maintaining macroeconomic stability. However, when budget releases are not predictable, public sector managers cannot be held to account for the performance of their programs and incentive for managers to plan for activities in advance, as they do not know when or whether they will actually be able to carry the activities out (Tommasi, 2007: 294).

  • DEFINITION

    The catchment area of a school is defined as the geographic area served by the school.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    In the absence of reliable local population data, the estimates for the following school year intakes are based on data collected by the heads of the schools in the school catchment area. Every year, after the school year has begun, the school heads and the school management committee presidents visit the families in their catchment areas in order to collect the names of all children aged six. These children (whose parents claim them to be six years old) are expected to register in school during the following school year and therefore they represent the new intake for the coming school year. These data, as well as other data on student flow rates (repetition, promotion and dropout) within the school system, are used by the schools for preparing their plan for the following year (Oulai et al, 2011: 48). , While assignment may be ‘enlightened’ by research findings, it mainly reflects a country’s political culture and is tinged with the prevailing ideologies at a given point in time. For example, it is no coincidence that, at the end of the 1980s, it was a ‘liberal’ government in the United Kingdom that decided to do away with the policy of school catchment areas and establish for families the principle of a ‘free choice’ of school, thus bringing into being a ‘school market’ system. In the field of research, economists and sociologists are probably those who have most vigorously addressed the question of how students are allocated to particular schools. Their research – and especially that of the economists – seeks on the whole to identify the impact of the various institutional mechanisms used to distribute students among schools (Dupriez, 2010: 21).

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    DEFINITION

    An official survey involving the whole population within a defined system. For example, a school census involves all the schools within the education system.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    National and global literacy statistics are mostly based on population censuses taking place once every 10 years or, increasingly, on household surveys or, in rare cases, on specific literacy surveys. The concepts of literacy, and consequently the measurements, are simplified because of the large scale nature of such national surveys. The two most common measurements are: (i) whether the respondents (usually the heads of households) and the family members are able to read and write; and/or (ii) the highest level of formal education the respondents have completed (Lind, 2008: 29).

  • DEFINITION

    Way of organizing state institutions in which the central authority holds all decision-making powers in terms of political, administrative and financial issues. Local authorities are fully reliant on decisions made by the central authority [translated by IIEP].

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    In most countries, governments relied on ‘inspectors’ or ‘supervisors’ to ensure the implementation of central regulations. Countries not able to carry out effective supervision had lower levels of enrolments and of educational quality. Centralization of authority reduced instances of corruption at the local Level (Welsh and McGinn, 1999: 24).

  • DEFINITION

    The president or chief administrative officer of a university. In some higher education systems, the chancellor is the honorary head of a university, and the vice-chancellor is the actual operational head.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Higher education and HAE cannot be left to market forces in the hope that these will provide the type of education that serves the national and public interest. The government must ensure that the public interest is served and that basic research relevant to the country’s needs is undertaken. Within the framework of state control governments own, finance, and operate higher education institutions. Without careful monitoring this can lead to politicians appointing vice-chancellors and ministries dictating degree requirements and curricula (Atchoarena and Gasperini, 2003: 330).

  • DEFINITION

    Charter schools [...] [consist of a] clear written agreement between a group of teachers and the school district to reorganize some part of the instructional programme (Abu-Duhou, 1999: 52).

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    As noted above, although there are many reform movements in process today in the USA, one of the most rapid developments in recent years is that of the ‘charter schools’. The charter was a clear written agreement between a group of teachers and the school district to reorganize some part of the instructional programme. Examples included reorganized kindergartens, new elective programmes and integrated teaching projects. The charter model though is not entirely new in concept. Hill et al. (1990) point out that this is not a complete alternative to the current system “because the core is left intact – the commitment to governing public schools via politically negotiated rules remains”. The purpose was to see the continuing development of teaching methods responsive to students and their needs; thus, the need for a process of constant renewal in the charter (Abu-Duhou, 1999: 52)., Public funding of alternative schools has been implemented most frequently by commissioning, contracting or chartering a group responsible for provision. In some countries, charters or contracts are given primarily to private groups, while in other countries publicly elected groups govern most charter schools. Schools may also be organized as co-operatives owned by participating teachers (as in Chile), or as corporations owned by parents or others (Welsh and McGinn, 1999: 45).

  • DEFINITION

    The child dependency ratio is the ratio of the population aged 0-14 to the population aged 15-64, presented as the number of dependants per 100 persons of working age (15-64).

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Consider the demographic changes over the course of a classic demographic transition. Initially, mortality begins to fall while fertility remains high, resulting in rising child dependency ratios as more births survive. Rising child dependency translates into falling support ratios. Eventually, typically after a number of decades, fertility begins to decline and child dependency falls, causing the support ratio to begin to rise (Lee and Mason, 2010).

  • DEFINITION

    UNICEF uses the term ‘child protection’ to refer to preventing and responding to violence, exploitation and abuse against children – including commercial sexual exploitation, trafficking, child labour and harmful traditional practices, such as female genital mutilation/cutting and child marriage.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    The policy framework will address many other issues. An international NGO should have a policy for capacity-building of its local staff (and, where applicable, government officers), child protection, inclusiveness and gender, willingness to work with displaced populations after their return home, and other issues referred to in this booklet (Sinclair, 2002: 114).

  • DEFINITION

    The Child-Friendly School model, developed by UNICEF, promotes inclusiveness, gender-sensitivity, tolerance, dignity and personal empowerment.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    La première condition pour qu'une école soit accueillante pour les enfants est que l'établissement et les infrastructures physiques soient en bon état, avec un espace et un mobilier adéquats pour chaque enfant, un éclairage approprié et un aspect général qui soit lumineux, attrayant et joyeux. Il est important de prévoir des toilettes et d'établir les écoles à proximité du domicile des élèves, notamment pour les filles (Atchoarena et Gasperini, 2003 : 173)., The first requirement of a child-friendly school is that the physical plant and infrastructure be in good repair, with adequate space and furniture for each child, adequate lighting and a general appearance that is bright, welcoming and happy. Providing sanitary washrooms and locating schools close to pupils’ homes is important, especially for girls (Atchoarena and Gasperini, 2003: 152)

  • DEFINITION

    Childcare [includes] supervision, nutrition and health [...] for which no explicitly pedagogically-trained staff is required.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Over half of OECD countries are unable, in practice, to distinguish between early childhood education and childcare in integrated programmes. Of these, most, including Italy, Denmark and the United States, choose to report all of the information under ISCED 0. A minority of countries do not include integrated programmes under ISCED 0 for reporting on personnel (Australia, Norway), expenditure (Korea), or overall reporting (Canada, Greece, Switzerland). These differences should be taken into account when drawing conclusions from international comparisons (OECD, 2013: 279).

  • DEFINITION

    A broad concept including not only the teaching of constitutional principles, teaching democracy the legal and political institutions, the development of democracy and other political systems in history, the structure of political parties, the rights of citizens within society or that of students within the school system, but also the development of democratic attitudes, skills and behaviour. In practice, civic education could either be a separate course in school or included as a topic in other courses (UNESCO, 1995: 9).

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    While civic education can be seen as education about citizenship, citizenship education is far more concerned with education through citizenship and for citizenship (Kerr, 2002: 216). In contrast to civic education, which focuses very much on education that reinforces the existing structures of government and political culture, citizenship education, as described by Kerr, has the potential to address issues of diversity through the ideal values of citizenship education outlined above. Whether this is achieved depends very much on its implementation (Inglis, 2008: 106).

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    DEFINITION

    The term 'class', in the first degree, generally corresponds to a group of academic students in the same level during a school year. In elementary school, the class corresponds to the course (preparatory course, elementary course, 1st or 2nd year, 1st or 2nd year intermediate); these classes may be called 'single level classes'. However, in some schools, the number of pupils is such that students from various levels are grouped in the same class; this is a 'class with several levels'. Some schools have only one class, also grouping together several levels; we then speak of a 'single class'.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Too often, children’s early reading difficulties go undetected until second or third grades, a situation exacerbated historically by large classes in primary grades, little time for individual student assessment, and few available assessment tools for teachers (Wagner, 2011: 86).

  • DEFINITION

    Quarterly meeting, in high schools and colleges, with teachers, parent and student representatives, when the progress of pupils is reviewed [translated by IIEP].

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Indeed, besides the school board there exists the disciplinary council, class councils, a student council and sometimes a commission for hygiene and security (Durand-Prinborgne, 2002: 54).

  • DEFINITION

    Techniques used in the classroom or in any other educational setting to create propitious learning conditions; includes discipline, management, sitting arrangement.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    In an attempt to better understand the differences between the corporate training classroom and the college classroom, this study compares the classroom techniques of college instructors and corporate trainers and assesses the effectiveness of games as an active learning classroom technique to engage learners (Kumar and Lightner, 2007: 55).