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A B C D E F G H I K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z
  • DEFINITION

    First university degree.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Figure 3.2 shows that most countries have a combination of 180 ECTS and 240 ECTS programmes in the fi rst cycle. Only the Flemish Community of Belgium, France, Italy, Liechtenstein, and Switzerland have a single 180 ECTS model for bachelor’s degrees (Crosier and Parveva, 2013: 34).

  • DEFINITION

    A broader concept than primary schooling, comprising early child education, adult literacy programmes, and a range of nonformal activities for children, young people and adults.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Basic education projects in several countries have set up clusters and resource centres as part of an effort to expand basic education and increase participation. Especially in rural areas where provision of basic education is limited, school clusters group incomplete rural schools with complete ones to provide the entire cycle of basic education, and link feeder schools to core schools to expand access (Giodano, 2008: 29).

  • DEFINITION

    Defined in the World Declaration on Education for All (Jomtien, Thailand, 1990) as essential tools for learning (e.g. literacy, oral expression, numeracy and problem-solving) as well as basic learning content (e.g. knowledge, skills, values and attitudes) that human beings require to be able to survive, develop their full capacities, live and work in dignity, participate in development, improve their quality of life, make informed decisions and continue learning. The scope of basic learning needs and how they should be met varies by country and culture, and changes over time.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    These observations and indicators suggest that four basic learning needs must be met before moving on to more comprehensive notions of quality: reading with comprehension, communicating in writing, valuing good citizenship, and leaming from context (Schiefelbein, 1992: 30).

  • DEFINITION

    The skills needed to live in contemporary society, e.g. listening, speaking, reading, writing and mathematics.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    The IALS data show that qualifi cations and literacy/numeracy skills are positively related, but far from perfectly so. Thus, there are plenty of examples in IALS of highly-qualifi ed people with poor literacy and numeracy skills, and individuals with few qualifi cations who nevertheless have very good basic skills. This has important implications for employers in terms of hiring individuals with the appropriate knowledge and skills, rather than simply individuals with certain qualifications (McIntosh, 2008: 35).

  • DEFINITION

    Specially organized training, given outside of production activities of an undertaking, and aimed at imparting the basic knowledge and skill required for a given group of occupations.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Within the context of their own systems, planners need to explore the possibility of modifying initial and in-service teacher development programmes to include basic training in counselling (Kelly, 2000: 55).

  • DEFINITION

    Systematic and continuous evaluation of products, services, performances or methods against a standard or agreed upon point of reference in order to achieve excellence.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Accreditation, therefore, inevitably involves some kind of benchmarking (of what is acceptable and what is not) and a set of existing quality criteria (Martin and Stella, 2007: 36). , The Bologna Process also highlights the importance of consultation and monitoring through activities such as stakeholder discussions, ministerial meetings, and expert working groups. One of its clear achievements is increased transparency and improved information about important aspects of European higher education, including through the well-established process of benchmarking of country performances against commonly agreed objectives (Crosier and Parveva, 2013: 74).

  • DEFINITION

    The individuals, groups, or organizations, whether targeted or not, that benefit, directly or indirectly, from the development intervention.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    In Guatemala’s Eduque, the monthly stipend is one quarter the average monthly income for women with less than a year of schooling. A household survey conducted in the intended beneficiary communities helped determine the stipend rate. The scholarships were first set at $2/month. After three years they increased to $3/month and finally to $4/month. The rationale for the stipend amount was that it would not be greater than the family’s income, but less than the capability of the girl to generate income through her own work (Patrinos, 2007: 15). , Making tuition fees payable by the student takes cost sharing directly to the primary beneficiary while acknowledging that education is also a public good and must be supported by the state and private sector interests. Indeed, they are also beneficiaries of every throughput of graduates annually and of a national pool of educated graduates generally. Effective loan repayment systems and tax regimes can ensure that at least some of the financing of tuition fees for continuing waves of students can be met from an identifiable, even if not entirely predictable, source (Tewarie, 2011: 15).

  • DEFINITION

    Aid that is controlled and spent by donor countries at their own discretion. It may include staff, supplies, equipment, funding to receipt governments and funding to NGOs. It also includes assistance channelled as earmarked funding through international and UN organisations.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Less developed countries are expected to bear the brunt of these reductions, with cuts to their bilateral aid of 12.8% from 2011 to 2012 (UNESCO, 2014: 12).

  • DEFINITION

    The use of two languages in a formal education system (neither necessarily being the mother tongue)—the closer they are to being equally emphasized academically, the ‘stronger’ the model.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Some countries have propounded programmes aimed at better meeting the needs of populations with specific cultural, social and ethnic characteristics; for instance, projects focusing on intercultural, bilingual education (in the mother tongue and the official language). Some such programmes have gone nationwide, as in Mexico, Bolivia, Ecuador and Paraguay (Vaillant, 2005: 25).

  • DEFINITION

    The birth rate is the ratio between the number of live-born births in the year and the average total population of that year.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Recent developments in migration policy have also allowed provinces to take a role in selecting their own migrants, and Quebec has been particularly active in recruiting French-speaking migrants to compensate for its declining birth rate (Inglis, 2008: 130).

  • DEFINITION

    Type of financing that provides a lump sum to the receiving entity who, within certain general guidelines, is free to allocate these funds to the purposes of its choice.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    As a result, school principals manage some funds autonomously. When these funds are used to recruit extra staff, the principals also manage those staff. At the same time, international agencies are proposing to provide block grants to schools which they can spend as they wish. Due to these different factors, school principals are starting to play a greater role in decision-making (de Grauwe, 2005: 273).

  • DEFINITION

    A school which provides accommodation and meals for the pupils during term time.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    In the UK, meanwhile, the IB Diploma has become popular in a number of independent boarding schools that cater for relatively high numbers of overseas students; in other schools, both independent and state, it has become increasingly attractive as dissatisfaction has grown with the well-established and specialized A Level system (Hayden and Thompson, 2008: 36).

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    DEFINITION

    An estimate of income and expenditure for a set period of time.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Similarly it is not enough to know the general trend and breakdown of gross expenditures as revealed by the national education budget; it is important to know also what is happening to unit costs throughout the system, to the pattern of revenues by sources, to the relationship of educational expenditures to total public expenditures and the GNP (Coombs, 1970: 59).

  • DEFINITION

    Budget cycle depends on administrative traditions and procedures in the country. In any case, irrespective of the type of budget practiced, it includes such phases as: (i) budget preparation; (ii) budget adoption; and (iii) budget execution; which can be divided into more detailed stages.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    If donors disagree with Government spending priorities, they can try to influence them through policy dialogue, through conditionality, or by earmarking their aid. Depending on the stage in the budget cycle at which earmarking takes place and Government reactions to it, it may be capable of changing allocations between or within sectors, or the extent to which aspects of the finally approved budget are actually executed. It requires strong assumptions regarding the efficiency of the budget process and the relative power of the finance ministry before donor earmarking is rendered entirely impotent (as cited in IIEP, 2010).

  • DEFINITION

    Lines of a programme or project budget which reflect a budget allocation and its related use or source. These are used to identify inputs planned under each of the main budget components (e.g., personnel, equipment, training, contracts, miscellaneous) by purpose, duration and estimated cost.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    While it is critical to plan for monitoring and evaluation together, resources for each function should be separate. In practice, each project should have two separate budget lines for its monitoring and evaluation agreed in advance with partners. This will help UNDP and its partners be more realistic in budgeting. It will also reduce the risk of running out of resources for evaluation, which often takes place towards the end of implementation (UNDP, 2009: 90).

  • DEFINITION

    The term 'budget nomenclature' designates the classification used in each country to arrange the data in the budget. These classifications are often organised by the Ministry of Finance, according to certain types of codification by which a code is associated with a title or heading. The nomenclature aims at facilitating the financial management of the State by specifying each budgetary line. The use of a structured coding system facilitates the computerisation of the recording of expenditures and summarising them.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Budgetary nomenclature is input-oriented in all cases observed, even in Zambia despite its programme budgeting efforts (Péano, 1999: 174).

  • DEFINITION

    Body with the aim of assisting local small businesses and start-ups by providing them with below-market rent, shared services, facilities and access to consultants.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Business Incubator (BI) programme: The BI programme began in 1993 based on the Law for Supporting the Start-up of Small and Medium-sized Enterprises. This programme selects business incubators in universities, PRIs, and private companies to provide various facilities for entrepreneurs in order to increase start-up success rates. BI supplies a series of incubation services, such as management, technology, finance, and marketing to potential or new entrepreneurs that lack knowledge in commercialization (Martin, 2011: 199). , Enterprise development may be geared either to the strengthening of existing SMEs, or to the creation of start-up firms, usually set up by an academic staff member or a graduate student to commercialize a university’s invention. So-called business incubators or innovation centres usually logistically support start-up firms, through an interface structure managed by the university, in which it plays an important role. Given a more active part in the area of enterprise development, the university becomes an increasingly important partner in local economic development (Hernes and Martin, 2011: 68).