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A B C D E F G H I K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z
  • DEFINITION

    Conditions (examination certificates, proof of skills, etc.) of entrance to courses of study, further study, training, etc.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    The higher rate of high-school graduates does not necessarily mean better quality; according to the results of achievement tests that students take to obtain school-leaving certificates, Argentine high schools have very low levels of academic performance. This, along with the lack of strict university admission requirements based on merit, results in great numbers of students entering the university and later a phenomenal number of them dropping out (D'Antoni, 2006: 191). , The motive of some of the institutions is to provide opportunities for higher circular education to a particular group in the society. This is particularly true of certain religious organizations which want to establish universities to cater for their faithful only. Thus, they have parochial and discriminatory admission requirements, discriminating against people of other faiths, even though their constitutions provide that discrimination on the basis of colour, race, religious belief or gender will not be allowed in the institution (Varghese, 2006: 180).

  • DEFINITION

    Education specifically targeted at individuals who are regarded as adults by their society to improve their technical or professional qualifications, further develop their abilities, enrich their knowledge with the purpose to complete a level of formal education, or to acquire, refresh or update their knowledge, skills and competencies in a particular field. This also includes what may be referred to as ‘continuing education’, ‘recurrent education’ or ‘second chance education’.

    SOURCE: International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Latin America and the Caribbean was one of the first regions to introduce the category of young people into the concept of adult education in the 1980s, due to their growing presence in educational programmes designed for adults. Youth and adult education continues to be the most representative conceptual classification covering what is principally second-chance or compensatory schooling, including literacy.

    SOURCE: CONFINTEA VI Midterm Review, 2017
  • DEFINITION

    Number of literate persons aged 15 and above, expressed as a percentage of the total population in that age group.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Since 1990, adult literacy rates have risen fastest in the Arab States. Nevertheless, population growth has meant that the number of illiterate adults has only fallen from 52 million to 48 million (UNESCO, 2014: 4).

  • DEFINITION

    Positive action taken to overcome underrepresentation of certains groups (generally women and members of minority groups) in employment (including career advancement programs) and in the make-up of student bodies, as compared to the composition of the area population.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Compensatory programmes were devised in developed countries as part of the formal education system when the conclusion was reached that providing a genuine equality of chances was not just a question of giving the same resources and instruction to all students. On the contrary, it was deemed necessary to concentrate more effort on students in difficulty, and to provide their schools with more resources. These ‘affirmative action’ programmes were adapted and introduced in many developing countries as well, especially in Latin America (Atchoarena, Grauwe and Sylla, 2000: 7).

  • DEFINITION

    Enrolment of a given age or age group, regardless of the level of education in which pupils or students are enrolled, expressed as a percentage of the population of the same age or age group.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Data reflect the actual number of children not enrolled at all, derived from the age-specific enrolment ratios of primary school age children, which measure the proportion of those who are enrolled in either primary or secondary school (UNESCO, 2010: 17).

  • DEFINITION

    The fertility rate at a given age (or for an age bracket) is the number of live children born to women of the age in question in the course of the year, as a proportion of the average population of women of the same age over the year in question.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Where there is no deliberate birth control, fertility rates by age indicate the biological capability of women to bear children: the fertility rate is higher among young women and tends to fall as their age rises. In this case, it is possible to forecast the number of future births with some degree of accuracy on the basis of the age distribution of women and the fertility rate by age (Châu, 2003: 55).

  • DEFINITION

    A mortality rate limited to a particular age group, in which the numerator is the number of deaths in that age group, and the denominator the number of persons in that age group in the population.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    The possibility exists that in Malawi, Zambia and Zimbabwe infant and child mortality rates, already very high, may increase dramatically – the infant rate doubling and the child rate tripling (Kelly, 2000: 48).

  • DEFINITION

    General term for schemes which offer an alternative to traditional institutional education or for movements which reject the notion of formal schooling.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Alternative education programs are one way of responding to the disengagement of young people from mainstream schools (Wilson, Stemp and McGinty, 2013: 32)

  • DEFINITION

    Ancillary services are services provided by educational institutions that are peripheral to the main educational mission. The main component of ancillary services is student welfare services (OECD, 2013: 171).

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Schools provide a range of services under the title ‘education’. These include instruction, but they also provide food, sports facilities and welfare counselling. Many of these ancillary services could be provided by private firms under contract rather than by government agencies (Belfield and Levin, 2003: 25).

  • DEFINITION

    The absolute difference that appears over a year, at t+1, compared to the value of the year t. This rate is known as an annual growth rate. It is an important measure of the evolution of a situation.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Figure 4.19 compares annual growth rates in domestic expenditure on education in thirty-two low-income countries with annual growth rates in aid to education between 1999 and 2005, to assess whether increased domestic spending has moved broadly in tandem with higher aid growth rates (UNESCO, 2008: 174).

  • DEFINITION

    The annual gross statutory salary is the sum of wages according to existing salary scales including bonuses that constitute a regular part of the annual base salary, like a thirteenth month or holiday bonus (OECD, 2004: 53).

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    In Table D3.2, salary per hour of net contact divides a teacher’s annual statutory salary by the annual net teaching time in hours (see Table D4.1) (OECD, 2013: 386).

  • DEFINITION

    Applied research is original investigation undertaken in order to acquire new knowledge. It is, however, directed primarily towards a specific practical aim or objective.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Thus, the more recent efforts by states to focus higher education on science and engineering − although intended to capture innovation rents − has resulted indirectly and perhaps inadvertently in a new kind of interstitial co-operation in global innovation. Such co-operation provides global enterprises and developed-country states with new sources of scientific human capital for basic and applied research. Yet these same education policies can, under the ‘right’ circumstances, also support their intended goal of helping countries to create absolute advantage (Carnoy, 1999: 26).

  • DEFINITION

    Systematic, long-term training alternating periods at the workplace and in an educational institution or training centre. The apprentice is contractually linked to the employer and receives remuneration (wage or allowance). The employer assumes responsibility for providing the trainee with training leading to a specific occupation.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Initially, the purpose of continuing education was to bring professionals’ competence up to date and more generally to provide professional development over the course of a career (Husén, 1999: 34). There is also a closely related set of learning activities aimed at tradespeople and technicians, such as apprenticeships, which are known as vocational education. Often the former is associated with formal settings, whereas the latter is associated with on-the-job training that is combined with aspects of formal education in an intermittent and progressive way (Desjardins, Rubenson and Milana, 2006: 22).

  • DEFINITION

    To entrust staff with certain tasks.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    During these sessions, tutors assisted teachers in studying guides to programme modules and gave teachers feedback on their assignments (Schwille and Dembélé, 2007: 119).

  • DEFINITION

    The necessary and positive conditions that allow for a successful cause-and-effect relationship between different levels of results.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Two assumptions underlie the estimation of opportunity costs: i) repeaters attain at most the lower secondary level [..] ; and ii) repeaters attain the national average education level (UIS-UNESCO, 2012: 55).

  • DEFINITION

    A record of how often someone has been present somewhere, for example at work.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    At the very base, all programmes with more than a very few classes report diffi culties in getting their facilitators to keep exact and complete records of enrolments, attendance, progress, drop-out and completion (Oxenham, 2010: 107).

  • DEFINITION

    A survey instrument, usually made up of questions or statements to which a range of alternative responses, e.g., degree of agreement with leading statements, is possible.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Many believe that it is easier to construct questionnaires and attitude scales than to construct tests. They are mistaken. There is a whole technology that can be used to help with test construction. This exists to a much lesser extent for questionnaire construction. The secret for questionnaire construction (and attitude scale construction) is pilot, pilot and pilot. If no piloting occurred, then it is most likely that the measures were no good (Postlethwaite, 2004: 98).

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    DEFINITION

    An independent, objective assurance activity designed to add value and improve an organization’s operations. It helps an organization accomplish its objectives by bringing a systematic, disciplined approach to assess and improve the effectiveness of risk management, control and governance processes.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Many countries have an educational management information system whereby yearly audits of schools are conducted, collecting data on some 20 to 60 variables in each school (Postlethwaite, 2004: 109).

  • DEFINITION

    A policy whereby all children are systematically promoted to the next grade except in exceptional circumstances (e.g. extended absenteeism due to illness) (UIS-UNESCO, 2012: 17).

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    Students in every country are evaluated annually or more often by their teachers (and their school). These evaluations measure, on the basis of teacher- or school-designed examinations, whether a student has ‘learned’ the prescribed curriculum. Except in those countries where there is automatic promotion, they determine whether students repeat the grade or move on to the next one (Carnoy, 1999: 62)

  • DEFINITION

    Average number of completed years of education of a country's population aged 25 years and older, excluding years spent repeating individual grades.

    EXAMPLE OF USE

    A closer look at the data, however, reveals notable differences and exceptions showing that more education does not necessarily lead to increased emissions. In China in 2008, when the average level of education was seven years, the level of emissions per capita was one-third of what the level in the United States was at a similar average level of education, in 1950 (UNESCO, 2014: 178).