The guide is organized into the following sections: • Section 1: Rationale for more effective language planning in education presents an overview of the advantages and benefits—at the learner, education system, and community levels—associated with appropriate use of language for education provision. It includes a particular focus on the advantages of L1-based instruction, drawing on evidence and experience gathered internationally as well as from the sub-Saharan African context. The section also notes common concerns raised with regard to L1-based instruction and responses to these concerns. • Section 2: Key factors to consider when planning for language use in education summarizes important issues related to L1 and L2/Lx instruction as they relate to language-use planning. These are broken down into the following five areas: (i) research on language, literacy, and learning; (ii) goals of the education system; (iii) the sociolin-guistic context; (iv) the educational context; and (v) stakeholder considerations. This section includes an overview of L1 learning and development, how children acquire L2/Lx language skills, and issues related to language transfer and LOI transition. • Section 3: Recommendations and steps for planning for effective language use in education describes actions USAID and stakeholders can undertake. Accompanying annexes provide planning tools and specific details on short-, medium- and long-term activities that should be carried out. Throughout the document, readers will find questions related to the research and information presented that can be used to guide their language planning process.