This report makes a critical analysis of language-in-education plans of Nepal with special focus on the MOE’s recent mother-tongue-based multilingual education. To be specific it includes following key points;a. Best practices of the MTB-MLE in India, Ethiopia and Burkina Faso and what lesson Nepal can learn from those practices. b. Review and critical analysis of the existing MTB-MLE policies and practices in Nepal.c. Experience of success and challenges from two MTB-MLE implemented schools in Nepal. d. Assessment of the extent to which present MTB-MLE activities/processes are geared towards improving student learning outcomes e. Policy options for the medium of instruction in Nepalese school education. The review of the MTB-MLE practices in three countries (mentioned above) suggests following points for the effective implementation of MTB-MLE in Nepal- Enough materials in local languages should be prepared before the implementation of the programme.- Community participation and involvement of other stakeholders should be ensured in all stages of the programme. - Eight-year long MTB-MLE provides a strong foundation for children’s learning and help them achieve better in all subjects including second and foreign language.- Decentralized decision-making process, with effective inspection and mentoring, helps for the effective implementation of the MTB-MLE. As Ethiopian case suggests there is no single uniform model of the programme in different states. It depends upon the need of the different regions. - Teachers’ capacity in mother tongue teaching is one of the most important factors for making teaching and learning of MT effective.